4. Assessment of Alternative Foreign CountriesNorwayPolitical• Type of government policy: Norway politics is within a democratic constitutional monarchy, and the executive power is exercised by the Council of state, the cabinet, led by the prime minister. (En.wikipedia.org, 2019).• Political stability: Norway is politically stable and the stability value is 1.15 points in 2017. (TheGlobalEconomy.com, 2019).• Tax policy: Norway has imposed to individuals and businesses some taxes such as income taxes which by 22%, wealth taxes which depend on each individual net wealth. (Skatteetaten.no, 2019). Also, value added taxes (VAT) imposes on general goods and services by 25%, foodstuffs by 15% and transport services by 12%. (Skatteetaten.no, 2019).• Trade restrictions: Norway is one of the members of European Economic Area (EEA) and applies the European Union trade policy laws excepting the fisheries and agriculture. Norway has few imports restrictions but not on agriculture sector where it remains highly protected by technical barriers and high tariffs. (Import-export.societegenerale.fr, 2019).Economic• Economic system type: Norway practice a mixed economy that with both privately and publicly owned enterprises. (En.wikipedia.org, 2019).• Economic growth: Norway growth rate was in 2017 represented by 1.9% which is slightly increased to be 2.0% in 2019. (Tradingeconomics.com, 2019).• Economic stability: Norway is economically stable an extensive social safety net. (Cia.gov, 2019).• Unemployment rate: Norway unemployment rate was 4.167% in 2017 but in 2018 it decreased to be 3.8%. (Data.worldbank.org, 2019)• Exchange rate: Norwegian Krone to Saudi Riyal exchange rate expressed as 1 NOK= 0.4095 SAR. (Exchangerates.org.uk, 2019)Social• Social classes: Norway is one of the most middle-class nations in Europe with 80% of their residents classified as “middle income,” according to Pew Research Center. (Boyd, 2019).• Population growth rate: Norway population growth rate was 0.808% in 2017 but in 2018 it decreased to be 0.706%. (Data.worldbank.org, 2019)• Age structure: Age structure represent about 17.77% of Norway’s total population were aged 0 to 14 years, 65.4% were aged 15-64 years and 16.82% were aged 65 years and older. (Statista, 2019).Technology• Level of innovation: Norway is ranked on the 19th in the global innovation index 2019 rankings. (Globalinnovationindex.org, 2019).• Technological change: Norway has shifted to green technology (green tech), ranging from renewable energy to food and industry production. (Samsonatlantic.com, 2019)•Environmental factors:• Environmental policies : There are various laws that regulating the use of natural resources and environmental policy, including particular laws on freshwater fish, environmental protection, pollution controls, and building regulations. (Stiftung, 2019).• Climate changes: Rainfalls in western Norway is hardly abnormal and creates problems and threats for Norwegian human life in the future. (Nikel, 2019)Legal• Current law practiced: Norway practice Scandinavian law (Nordic law), it’s considered as subcategory of civil law or as an individual legal body in itself. (En.m.wikipedia.org, 2019).• Employment law: This governed by Working Environment Act (WEA), and requires a written contract of employment for both temporary and permanent work. Also, the standard working hours is 8 hours per day for 5 days. (Nho.no, 2019).Other factors:• Demand of Al Othaim Supermarket: A high demand for Al Othaim by Muslim residents which they’re about 3.70% of the population, as because there are insufficient halal products in Norway which make it difficult to Muslims to find halal products in supermarkets.(Halalplaces.org, 2019)• Transportation cost: Transportation cost is high because of the long distance between two Norway and KSA as from Norway to KSA is 4,941 kilometers. (Distancefromto.net, 2019).• Level of competition: There are many numbers of supermarkets in Norway, but no one of them are Islamic supermarket, so as result the level of competition for Al Othaim will be low. (Gundersen, 2019).
• First mover advantage: If Al Othaim market go internationally, it not be the first Islamic supermarket. But it can gain advantage of cost reduction and the halal products that customer need and demand, this feature can distinguish Al Othaim from other and lead them have the same benefits of first mover advantage .
1. Available at: http://halalplaces.org/region/no/03 [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].2. Boyd, T. (2019). Pew Research: European Middle Class stable, even thriving compared to the U.S. – Dispatches Europe. [online] Dispatches Europe. Available at: https://dispatcheseurope.com/pew-research-european-middle-class-stable-even-thriving-compared-u-s/ [Accessed 9 Oct. 2019].3. Cia.gov. (2019). Europe :: Norway — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. [online] Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/print_no.html [Accessed 9 Oct. 2019].4. Data.worldbank.org. (2019). Population growth (annual %) – Norway | Data. [online] Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW?locations=NO [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].5. Data.worldbank.org. (2019). Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (national estimate) – Norway | Data. [online] Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.NE.ZS?locations=NO [Accessed 23 Nov. 2019].6. En.m.wikipedia.org. (2019). Scandinavian law. [online] Available at: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_law [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].7. En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Economy of Norway. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Norway [Accessed 1 Oct. 2019].8. En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Politics of Norway. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Norway [Accessed 9 Oct. 2019].9. Exchangerates.org.uk. (2019). Norwegian Krone to Saudi Riyal Exchange Rate Today, Live 1 NOK to SAR = 0.4095 (Convert Norwegian Krone to Saudi Riyal). [online] Available at: https://www.exchangerates.org.uk/Norwegian-Krone-to-Saudi-Riyal-currency-conversion-page.html [Accessed 23 Nov. 2019].10. Globalinnovationindex.org. (2019). Global Innovation Index 2019. [online] Available at: https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/gii-2019-report [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].11. Gundersen, M. (2019). Supermarkets in Norway: Norwegian Grocery Stores Explained. [online] Life in Norway. Available at: https://www.lifeinnorway.net/supermarkets-in-norway/ [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].12. Halalplaces.org. (2019). Halal restaurants and supermarkets/grorcery stores in Oslo Norway. [online]13. Import-export.societegenerale.fr. (2019). Regulations and customs in Norway : Customs. [online] Available at: https://import-export.societegenerale.fr/en/country/norway/regulations-customs [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].14. Nho.no. (2019). Basics of Norwegian Labour Law. [online] Available at: https://www.nho.no/en/english/articles/basic-labour-law/ [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].15. Nikel, D. (2019). How Climate Change Is Going To Impact Noway. [online] Life in Norway. Available at: https://www.lifeinnorway.net/how-climate-change-is-going-to-impact-noway/ [Accessed 23 Nov. 2019].16. Samsonatlantic.com. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.samsonatlantic.com/uploads/4/7/4/2/47421455/norway_and_innovation.pdf [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].17. Skatteetaten.no. (2019). The Norwegian Tax Administration. [online] Available at: https://www.skatteetaten.no/en/person/foreign/are-you-intending-to-work-in-norway/the-tax-return/what-are-you-liable-to-pay-tax-on-in-norway/ [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].18. Skatteetaten.no. (2019). Value added tax in Norway – foreign limited companies – The Norwegian Tax Administration. [online] Available at: https://www.skatteetaten.no/en/business-and-organisation/foreign/foreign-companies/vat/value-added-tax-in-norway/ [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].19. Statista. (2019). Norway – Age structure 2017 | Statista. [online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/327213/age-structure-in-norway/ [Accessed 24 Nov. 2019].20. Stiftung, B. (2019). SGI 2017 | Norway | Environmental Policies. [online] Sgi-network.org. Available at: https://www.sgi-network.org/2017/Norway/Environmental_Policies [Accessed 24 Nov.21. TheGlobalEconomy.com. (2019). Norway Political stability – data, chart | TheGlobalEconomy.com. [online] Available at: https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Norway/wb_political_stability/ [Accessed 10 Oct. 2019].
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