Most of the changes that newborn faces are the same for all family members. These changes include being brought to the world, meeting new parents, and having a new home. There are many things that a newborn experience and most of them are new to them. Each child experiences a different first day in the world. Some newborns experience a healthy start to life with both parents ready to support them, while others it is quite different. As time goes by, newborns form a bond with their parents and primary caregivers. With consistent love and support, the child learns to trust them and form strong bonds. Infants who face neglect, abuse or a lack of support tend to withdraw their trust from the parents and primary caregiver. For mothers, she begins to experience change from the moment she is pregnant. There is a mixture of anxiety and happiness as she waits for the newborn. Providing the mother with the required education of what to expect may help her with the transition. After the child is delivered, the mother may experience a change in hormones in the body. These change in hormones may cause mood swings and depressions. In addition, the mother will face a change in bonding herself with the child. A new mother expects to feel a deep bond with the baby the moment she holds them. In some cases, this appears not to be the case which may lead to frustrations. These situations where the mother does not experience a deep bond may last for days or weeks. This highlights the importance of quality education before and after giving birth. In addition, the mother may need knowledgeable support in case anything arises contrary to the expectations. Another change that the mother can experience is chemical changes in their brains. These chemical changes may lead to some experiences such a change in sleep patterns, emotions, energy levels, and eating habits.
In the same way, fathers also experience various changes. In some cases, fathers may feel disconnected to the pregnancy up until the baby is born. In contrast, other fathers welcome the baby with a lot of excitements. These dads attend classes with the pregnant mother and help them with the birthing process. They also educate themselves on various issues on healthcare and how to support the mother’s needs (Marshall, 2011). At birth, they are well informed about what is expected of them. In the today world, fathers are engaging more in pregnancies than ever. Some concerns for the father are doubting their abilities to raise the child. The changes experienced by the mother due to chemical changes may be alarming to the father. In the case where the mother and the father are separated, the understanding and happenings of the pregnancies may change considerably. Since the mother does not spend time together with the father, the father-infant bond may not develop.
In the case of siblings, they may be thrilled by the prospect of having a new young one in the home. In other cases, siblings feel left which may cause them to be jealous. Also, a new child brings a financial burden to the family. The older children may experience a smaller number of toys and they may not be able to get all the things that they used to get. It is essential for the parents to find a good approach in order to explain to the older siblings. This is possible by finding safe activities for the older siblings to help with. This will allow the entire family to have a strong bond. The extended family reaction and attitude can range from positive to negative. These attitudes will have a great influence on how the extended family will develop the bond. These attitudes will also help parents build their courage on their ability to raise the child. A large group who offer moral support will help the newborn gear up and adapt quickly to the new family. The parents understand that there is available support from the extended family, which boosts their courage.
For the perceptual phase, it is important for the family to understand the visual changes a child phases for the first few years. At the age of 6 months, the child eyesight is about 20/100. Two years later, the child’s vision is about 20/30. By the age of 5 years, the child’s eyesight now adjusts to 20/20 vision (Campbell & Milbourne, 2005). In addition, there many different aspects that impact how a child hears. These aspects also determine whether the child has any hearing problems or not. The parents are encouraged to undertake regular hearing checks which will provide a guide on the hearing progress of the child. During the first few years, the children develop a relationship between their perceptual and motor response. The child becomes comfortable in an area by navigating and holding various objects around them. A child has a strange depth of perception, weight, and space of the world and various objects around them. For instance, young infants who have less experience walking will judge a ditch on the ground wrongly and may end up losing balance. Losing balance may cause them to trip. The experience of tripping helps the child develop a different perception on a ditch. A more experienced walker may see a ditch and stop or adjust the footing to avoid losing balance. It is essential to provide ample space for a child to explore.
For the first year, there is a rapid growth for the child physically. This tends to slow down by the second year. The weight of an infant triples in the first year. For the second year, the infant gains about 5 to 6 pounds. In the first year, the length increases by about 10 to 11 inches and 5 to 6 inches for the second year. By the age of three, the child has more muscle in the body and short rounded shapes begin to change into lean characteristics. This is some of the physical characteristics that can be noted in an infant. The first 2 years of life show the head as large in comparison to the rest of the body. By the age of three years, age is more proportional, which make it easier to walk and navigate. By the age of 1, the infant has teeth growing. During this period, children have about 6 to 8 teeth lacking about 12 of the required milk teeth. The rest of the milk teeth grow by the age of three. There many factors that determine the amount of adipose tissue and fatty tissue children have.
Campbell, P., & Milbourne, S. (2005). Improving the Quality Of Infant—Toddler Care Through Professional Development. Topics In Early Childhood Special Education, 25(1), 3-14. doi: 10.1177/02711214050250010101
Marshall, J. (2011). Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(3), 175-181. doi: 10.1007/s10643-011-0460-2