Coursework, APA style, Cumulative review

Coursework, APA style, Title: Final Paper, 5 pages, and at least 3 references including book reference. Final Paper Instructions The Final Paper is a cumulative…

Coursework, APA style, Title: Final Paper, 5 pages, and at least 3 references including book reference.
Final Paper Instructions
The Final Paper is a cumulative review of all chapters studied in the textbook. You will choose 5 of the following questions to successfully complete your Final Paper. Each response needs to be at least 250–300 words. The question must be typed out in bold before the answer, and you must reference the textbook and/or presentations for each question. Be sure to include your reference(s) at the end of your paper.
These are the questions you may choose from:
1. Compare and contrast the bottom-up curriculum and the top-down curriculum. Discuss instructional objectives, materials, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment.
2. Pretend you are a teacher in a diverse classroom. Explain what you would do to encourage students to learn English but still not abandon their own cultures.
3. You were asked to address the Young Parents Club in your community. The club members would like you to present information about parents reading aloud to their children. As part of your presentation, you were also asked to share a list of do’s and don’ts for reading aloud. What information will you share with the parents? Discuss the do’s and don’ts list. Be sure to explain why you generated the list.
4. Most 5-year-olds are not aware that what is said can be written, that written language is made up of sentences, or that reading involves directionality, attending to the space between words, and other conventions of print. Explain how you will develop the relationship between speech and print with beginning readers.
5. Write a letter to parents explaining at least 4 ways (2 informal and 2 formal) of how you will assess your students. Justify your response.
6. A student in your class hesitates between words while she reads. You notice that she looks around the page while she hesitates. Discuss your intervention plans in order to develop reading fluency.
7. Name and explain 3 strategies you would use to help struggling readers develop vocabulary knowledge and concept development.
8. Why is it important to develop readers’ awareness of story structures? What do students need to know about the elements of a story? Explain at least 3 strategies for teaching story structures.
9. You are writing a grant in order to purchase literature and nonfiction trade books for integration into your curriculum. Discuss 5 reasons that you could include in your rationale for needing additional trade books.
10. What is individualized instruction in reading? When should it be implemented? Explain how it can be carried out to meet diverse learners’ needs in a class of 25–30 students. Then give a specific example of a differentiated lesson plan that you will teach.
Coursework, APA style, Title: Final Paper, 5 pages, and at least 3 references including book reference.
The Final Paper is due Friday May 10, 2019. Thanks
Hello, below are some previous papers done by different students found via Course Hero, just to show you the format that the instructor is asking for. As a reminder this institution does check for Plagiarism. By the way thank you for the last paper, it was well written.
FINAL PAPER GRADING RUBRIC
100 Points
Criteria Levels of Achievement
Content Advanced Proficient Developing Not present
Question #1
14 points 13 to 14 points
• The student answered all portions of the questions in a clear and concise manner.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 10 to 12 points
• The student answered most portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 1 to 9 points
• The student did not answer all portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is NOT referenced 0 points
Not present
Question #2
14 points 13 to 14 points
• The student answered all portions of the questions in a clear and concise manner.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 10 to 12 points
• The student answered most portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 1 to 9 points
• The student did not answer all portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is NOT referenced 0 points
Not present
Question #3
14 points 13 to 14 points
• The student answered all portions of the questions in a clear and concise manner.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 10 to 12 points
• The student answered most portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 1 to 9 points
• The student did not answer all portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is NOT referenced 0 points
Not present
Question #4
14 points 13 to 14 points
• The student answered all portions of the questions in a clear and concise manner.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 10 to 12 points
• The student answered most portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 1 to 9 points
• The student did not answer all portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is NOT referenced 0 points
Not present
Question #5
14 points 13 to 14 points
• The student answered all portions of the questions in a clear and concise manner.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 10 to 12 points
• The student answered most portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is referenced 1 to 9 points
• The student did not answer all portions of the questions.
• Textbook and/or presentation is NOT referenced 0 points
Not present
Structure Advanced Proficient Developing Not present
Word Count Violations, Spelling, Grammar, and Reference
25 points 23 to 25 points
• There are no grammatical errors and no word count violations.
• Reference(s) is included at the end 18 to 22 points
• There are a few grammatical errors and/or word count violations.
• Reference(s) is included at the end 1 to 17 points
• There are multiple grammatical errors and/or word count violations.
• Reference(s) is NOT included at the end 0 points
Not present
Question Stated
5 points 5 points
• Which question being answered is clearly written 4 points
• Which question being answered is partially written 1 to 3 points
• The question being answered is numbered but not written 0 points
Not present
1. Compare and contrast the bottom-up curriculum and the top-down curriculum. Discuss instructional objectives, materials, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment.It is crucial for every planner of a curriculum to contemplate the appropriate way in which to formulate the studying lessons to attain the intended objectives of optimal learning processes. Under this aspect of planning are the top-down curriculum and the bottom-up curriculum methods in which the lesson organizer begins the process by focusing on details and other relevant blocks (Fautley & Savage, 2013). Notably, the two approaches to curriculum alignment for learners which are the top-down curriculum and the bottom-up curriculum greatly resemble each other upon the comparison. In particular, the bottom-up curriculum approach allows the lesson organizer to commence the formulation process by focusing on tiny aspects of the plan before expanding to other technical areas of operations (Fautley & Savage, 2013). For instance, this approach to lesson planning considers finer elements which include the vocabulary and wording of phrases to ensure they are easily understandable to the learner.Moreover, under this method are technical areas such as a procedural solution to computations in mathematics or a way of offering a viable solution to a problem involving algorithm. The instruction method under the bottom-up curriculum emphasizes on the need for the instructor to expand the scope of the learning gradually as the learner masters the smaller details under the lesson plan (Glass, 2009). For example, the expansion process could include additional testing of reading skills through loudly pronouncing the words in the vocabulary framework.On the other hand, the top-down curriculum is the reverse teaching of the bottom-up curriculum in the sense that it advocates for the commencement of the process with more complex concepts. Under this method, the learner explores through a range of bigger abstracts which are continually broken down into finer details for ease of comprehension as the study occurs. For instance, under this approach, the instructor could guide the learner through ideas such as the existence of a chemical reaction while allowing the learner to compute the constituent elements in the reaction process (Glass, 2009). Notably, the two methods facilitate the attainment of the lesson objectives. However, the strategies involved are evident in the varied way of planning in the two methods as each method seeks to attain a specific strategy of the learning process.2. Pretend you are a teacher in a diverse classroom. Explain what you would do to encourage students to learn English but still not abandon their own cultures.In the context of a diverse group of learners, it is crucial that the methods adopted for instruction should effectively address the uniqueness of the situation of each learner. Consequently, in my position as the instructor to this group of diverse learners, I will formulate teaching mechanisms which directly address the needs of the learners in the classroom context. For instance, my instruction methods will consider the cultural differences among learners to tap into the strengths of each learner to ensure peak performance during the learning process (Glass, 2009). Notably, the main objective of having a diversified curriculum which takes care of the interest of each learner will include avoiding a scenario in which a certain fraction of learners could feel ignored in the instructional arrangement. Consequently, the learning method for adoption in the context of my multicultural classroom will involve a diverse range of activities which could serve to inspire the various learners to embrace their cultural attributes and values which learning at the same time.Through the use of these activities, I will form an essential connection with the learners through collaborative learning arrangements with their colleagues in the context of group discussions (Priestley & Biesta, 2013). The items which I will include in the collaborative activities of the learners are things which allow for the demonstration of the uniqueness of cultural values of each learner such as the native language use in discussion. Moreover, I will also encourage the learners to adopt English usage through reading and comprehension of pictures as a way to encourage learning through diversity. Also, I will encourage the necessary stakeholders to decorate the classroom with items which attract the attention of the learner hence creating a suitable environment for the learning context (Glass, 2009). To obtain the support of parents, I will also encourage effective communication between the learners and their guardians to enhance the interpersonal skills during instruction. Therefore, the strategies involved in this analysis are essential in encouraging learners to embrace their cultural diversities while still learning the English language in the classroom context.3. You were asked to address the Young Parents Club in your community. The club members would like you to present information about parents reading aloud to their children. As part of your presentation, you were also asked to share a list of do’s and don’ts for reading aloud. What information will you share with the parents? Discuss the do’s and don’ts list. Be sure to explain why you generated the list.There are many benefits of reading aloud to children as they grow up which include the enhanced rate cognitive development and motor skills improvement. Notably, the primary objectives why parents are usually advised to read aloud to their children include offering support to the learner on items which seem complex at the commencement of the process of the learning process (Glass, 2009). Under this aspect of reading aloud, the process is beneficial to the child since through reading; the child learns the correct pronunciation of words and intonation which effectively serve as the primary basis of fluency in reading. Second, when young parents read aloud to children, they inspire creativity in the learning by offering the necessary encouragement for such a learner to process and read on their own (Priestley & Biesta, 2013). Consequently, it follows that when parents fail to read aloud to their children, such young one tend to exhibit low rates of comprehension and reading skills when formal education begins. Also, the inability of children to comprehend the words due to the absence of loud reading from parents during the formative stages leads to lower learning abilities (Priestley & Biesta, 2013). Notably, while this analysis suggests that reading aloud is a positive issue which most parents should embrace, there are different things which parents should do and those which they should refrain from doing. The items are listed in the table below:DOs Don’tsBegin at the earliest stage of development Do not read fasterStart with charts Do not introduce figures at infancyInclude pictorials in the reading Do not read with illustrationsBegins reading at a slower paceCover the minor details like titles Do not conclude without asking questionsUse tonal variation Do not get impatient to respond to questionsCoordinate visual for the child Do not let the child read alone at infancy4. You are writing a grant in order to purchase literature and nonfiction trade books for integration into your curriculum. Discuss 5 reasons that you could include in your rationale for needing additional trade booksThe notable reasons for inclusion in the grant as justifiable explanations for the purchase of books for the curriculum could include the following:a) Trade books offer encouragement to the learners as they aim to achieve high learning targets (Priestley & Biesta, 2013). This aspect of the materials is crucial in the sense that it enables the learner to develop the needed motivation which leads to an overall improvement in learner performance;b) Literacy enhancement. Under this aspect, the trade books and other literature materials are important in the process of learning since they help in early learning process thereby boosting the ability of the learner to attain fluency (Priestley & Biesta, 2013);c) The inspiration of interest. These learning materials are essential towards the process of identification of the interesting areas to the learner as they continually take part in collaborative teaching arrangements.d) Creativity. The items help learners to develop an active sense of humor as they become more creative.e) Enhancement of personality and attributes. Notably, the use of literature materials is essential in the process of identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the learner which could prove helpful in enabling the instructor to align the environment to the learning requirements which meet the needs of the learners.
5. What is individualized instruction in reading? When should it be implemented? Explain how it can be carried out to meet diverse learners’ needs in a class of 25-30 students. Then give a specific example of a differentiated lesson plan that you will teach.Individualized learning refers to offering non-customized learning instructions to learners to confirm the most effective learning strategy in response to diversification. Under this approach to instruction, the learning adopts differentiated learning mechanism under which the instructor explores different methods to ascertain the most responsive version. It is crucial to note that the process of differentiation could involve breaking down the lesson plan into its constituent elements (Glass, 2009). For instance, the use of collaborative learning approaches in which each learner has the opportunity to choose an area of interest before an engagement could prove relevant. Also, the use of assignment through which learners may engage in informal sessions of interaction allows for a mixture of learning through academic approaches and other related activities hence enhancing the ability of the learner to comprehend the topical issues (Glass, 2009). Implementation of differentiated learning among learners is a positive venture because it enhances the ability of learners to acquire knowledge in the designed format through various approaches adopted in the learning process.Moreover, this method of instruction utilizes diverse instruction mechanisms which offer room for the attainment of optimum results during the entire process of learning for a class of between 25 to 30 learners (Glass, 2009). An example of a differentiated lesson plan which I intend to use in teaching the class of 25 to 30 students will be the use of narrative in which I will include both theory and practical activities. For instance, under the lesson plan, items such as visual aid and pictorials will help the learner to appreciate the content of the story under narration (Priestley & Biesta, 2013). Under this aspect, I will use pictures to demonstrate a tree before reading aloud to the learner to bolster the understanding capability of the learners in a classroom setting.
ReferencesFautley, M., & Savage, J. (2013). Lesson planning for effective learning. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Glass, K. T. (2009). Lesson design for differentiated instruction, grades 4-9. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin.Priestley, M., & Biesta, G. (2013). Reinventing the curriculum: New trends in curriculum policy and practice. London: Bloomsbury Pub.

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