Insert Table 1 Here
Measurement modelIn order to examine the properties of the measurement scales, confirmatory factoranalysis was conducted to assess reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity(seeDownloaded by ABU DHABI UNIVERSITY At 11:53 21 February 2018 (PT)
Insert Table 2 Here.Convergent validity. Reliability of the measurement scales, or measures of convergentvalidity, describe the extent to which variables consistently measure the same construct.Convergent validity can be assessed through examination of the factor loadings,composite reliability (CR), Cronbach’s alpha and average variance extracted (AVE)(Chin 1998). An initial analysis confirmed that factor loadings exceeded therecommended cutoff values of 0.5, all composite reliabilities and all Cronbach’s alphaexceeded 0.7 and all AVE’s were greater than 0.5, yielding convergent validity accordingto Fornell and Larcker (1981) and Henseler et al. (2016). When developing the model, itwas observed that three constructs (Work Influence A and Job Satisfaction C & E) didnot load as expected. These constructs were negatively worded on the survey instrument,and therefore it is hypothesized that respondents were either confused by the change indirectionality or that the translation from English to Arabic did not adequately capture theconcept. Thus, these indicators were excluded from the model. SeeDownloaded by ABU DHABI UNIVERSITY At 11:53 21 February 2018 (PT)
Insert Table 2 Here
for measurement model results.Downloaded by ABU DHABI UNIVERSITY At 11:53 21 February 2018 (PT)
Insert Table 2 Here
Discriminant validity. Discriminant validity assesses the degree to which itemsdifferentiate among constructs (or measure distinct concepts), or, more simply, is amethod for analyzing relationships between latent (unobserved) variables (Henseler,Ringle and Sarstedt 2015). Discriminant validity was examined by comparing thecorrelations between constructs and the square root of the average variance extracted forthat construct (Chin 2010, Fornell and Larker 1981). As shown in Error! Referencesource not found., all square roots of the average variance extracted were higher than thecorrelation values in the row and the column, indicating adequate discriminant validity.
Thus, the measurement model was considered satisfactory.
Insert Table 3 Here
Structural model. Sang et al. (2010) posited that the structural model indicates the causalrelationships among constructs in the model (path coefficients and the R2 value).Together, the R2 and the path coefficients (beta and significance) indicate how well the
data support a hypothesized model (Chin 1998; Sang et al. 2010). —————————-
Insert Table 4 Here
Insert Figure 2 Here
show the results of the structural model from the PLS output.
Insert Table 4 Here
Insert Figure 1 Here
The parameter estimates relating to the observed variables to quality of work life are
Insert Figure 2 Here
Downloaded by ABU DHABI UNIVERSITY At 11:53 21 February 2018 (PT)11. All sub constructs were found to be significant: capacity (0.792), opportunities (0.818),remuneration (0.715), respect for law (0.863), social integration (0.743), social relevance
(0.858), work conditions (0.752), and work influence (0.490).
Insert Figure 2 Here
For research hypothesis H1, the effect of QoWL on job satisfaction is estimated at 0.75. Itis positive and significant (p<0.001); therefore H1 is confirmed. The effect of QoWL onturnover is estimated as -0.22 with significance less than 0.01. This confirms the negativeeffect of QoWL on turnover as posited in H2. H3 examines the effect of job satisfactionon turnover, which is estimated to be -0.234 with a significance less than 0.01 confirmingthe negative association between job satisfaction and turnover. To verify if jobsatisfaction is mediating the relationship between QoWL and turnover, we tested thedirect and indirect effect of QoWL on turnover. The findings show that the indirect effectof QoWL on turnover is -0.176 with a significance of 0.004. Therefore, the indirect effectof QoWL over turnover is significant. This indirect effect is via job satisfaction. Since thedirect effect (-0.22) is also significant, this implies that satisfaction is a partial mediatorof the relationship between QoWL and turnover. The total effect of QoWL on turnover isestimated to -0.395 with significance (p<0.001). We also carried out the Sobel test to testthe mediation effect of job satisfaction. This yielded z=-2.84 and a P-value of 0.002,confirming once more the significance of the mediating effect. Finally, to assess the sizeof the mediation effect we computed the proportion of the total effect that is mediated,and found 45% of the relation between QoWL and turnover is mediated by jobsatisfaction.Findings and DiscussionThis study explores the quality of work life of females from a collectivistic Arab societywhere the majority are employed in the public sector. The results indicate that quality ofwork life and job satisfaction of Emirati women has a positive impact on reducing theirturnover intention. Being a collectivistic society, family is the central domain in the UAE,and thus problems and stress from work may affect the family (and vice versa), whereasthe opposite in case of individualistic society (Mihelic 2014). The findings are inalignment with the previous UAE research (Jabeen, Katsioloudes and Das, 2015; AlDhaheri, Jabeen, Hussain and Abu Rahma, 2017), who reported that family support iscrucial in Emirati females’ success. The study highlighted the changing values of thefemale workforce, such as the awareness and demand for international workingstandards, utilization of one’s capacities in the workplace, and the various growthopportunities that can be provided by employers. Also, Emotional Stability and Job SkillsMismatch played a significant role in their career choice (Al Dhaheri et al., 2017).Notwithstanding the generally accepted premise that UAE public-sector organizationsprovide generous remuneration for their employees, this research confirms that financialDownloaded by ABU DHABI UNIVERSITY At 11:53 21 February 2018 (PT)12benefits do not constitute the sole, or even primary, motivation for Emirati females. Eachof the eight dimensions proposed in Walton’s model significantly predict Emiratifemales’ quality of work life despite the different national and cultural settings of thiscohort. The findings have concluded that opportunities, challenges at work anddevelopment of human capacity are significant predictors of Emirati females’ quality ofwork life, and reflect their emerging orientation towards risk taking. The findings are incontrast to Hofstede (2001), where the UAE was given a score of 80 on this dimensionand thus would be regarded as having a high preference for avoiding uncertainty.Countries exhibiting high uncertainty avoidance maintain rigid codes of belief andbehavior; in these cultures there is an emotional need for rules, innovation may beresisted, and security is an important element in individual motivation.Hofstede also conceptualizes the masculinity (the “tenderness” or “toughness”) of anational culture (Fischer and Al-Issa, 2012). Contrary to Hofstede’s assertion that theUAE culture is neither masculine nor feminine, this study finds that the achievementnature of Emirati females is aligned with masculine cultures which tend to be driven bycompetition, achievement, and success (Hofstede, 2001). This can be attributed to the factthat in the past decade, the UAE has witnessed significant changes such as urbanization,increased physical mobility, widespread access to world media and the internet, anincrease in mass luxury consumerism, and social changes like the education of womenand their entrance into the labor market in greater numbers (Bromfield, Ashour andRider, 2016). These recent developments are in contrast to the characteristics of highuncertainty avoidance countries. Hence, the findings stress the need to retest the Hofstededimensions in this emerging Arab country, and also other Gulf Cooperation Council(GCC) countries.The shift in the mindset of female employees may be attributed to the variousempowerment and developmental initiatives taken by the UAE Government in line withits aspiration to be one of the most innovative countries in the world by 2021 (UnitedArab Emirates Cabinet, 2015). Policy makers and organizational leaders should establishinnovative employee engagement strategies aimed at enhancing female employees’ senseof belongingness, challenge and capacity development in the workplace. Educationalseminars on happiness and positivity are examples of initiatives undertaken by the UAEGovernment whereby federal and public employees are trained and educated on strategiesto achieve happiness and positivity in their workplace and lifestyles (Gulf News, 2016).The findings are in alignment with the previous international research (Alniacik et al2011; Sluss et al., 2008; Surienty, 2014) which found that positive increase in selfenhancementand self-worth can reduce employee turnover intention. These resultsfurther suggest that although UAE females are traditional in nature, a change in theirworking mindset — similar to a shift demonstrated by women globally — has beenobserved (Saklani, 2004; Mihelic, 2014; Surienty et al., 2014).Analysis of variance was conducted to examine differences in the quality of work life,job satisfaction and turnover intention of various demographic characteristics. It wasfound that Emirati females aged 18 to 25 reported significantly higher quality of work lifeand job satisfaction than 26 to 35 year olds. No differences were reported for other ageDownloaded by ABU DHABI UNIVERSITY At 11:53 21 February 2018 (PT)13groupings. A very surprising result was observed in regards to marital status, whereresearchers found that divorced females record a higher quality of work life and jobsatisfaction as compared to single and married females (either with or without children).However, significantly lower turnover intention was reported for married versus singlerespondents; similarly, married respondents reported lower turnover intention than theirdivorced colleagues. In the UAE, after the discovery of oil, Emiratis have entered thecontemporary world. Although many changes have been positive, social problems,including divorce, have also increased (Bromfield, 2014; Bromfield et al., 2016).Interference of family members, financial issues, lack of communication, and differencesin age or educational levels are among some of the key factors that lead to divorces in theUAE (Bromfield et al., 2016). Emirati divorces are similar in a number of ways todivorces anywhere else in the world, which indicates that culture plays less of a role thanone might think or may be an indicator of slow transition of Emirati society fromcollectivistic to individualistic culture where the previous researches (Dion and Dion,2005) consistently show that in more individualist cultures, divorce rates are higher.However, in another study, Toth and Kemmelmeier (2009) reported that highlyindividualist and highly collectivist societies are similar with regard to the structure ofprevailing divorce attitudes. The result can be highlighted for policy makers given theincreasing divorce rates in the UAE. According to the National Centre for Statistics inAbu Dhabi, a total of 3,900 divorce cases (up from 2,300 in 2012) have been lodged incourts across the UAE in the year 2013 (Salama, 2014).Along with strengthening female empowerment strategies, the UAE Government andpolicy makers may also address the importance of family ties by enhancing marriagecounselling plans and other initiatives to help female employees balance the conflictingdemands of family and work life which will in turn reduce turnover intention.A report published by the Dubai Women’s Establishment (2012) found that the existenceof flexible work options was positively aligned with employees’ sense of loyalty andquality of work life. The results suggest the importance of flexibility options at the UAEworkplace which may help employees balance their work and family responsibilities.Currently, limited flexibility options such as job sharing, flexi-locations, telecommuting,flexi-times and compressed hours schemes have been implemented in federal andgovernment entities as compared to their private sector counterparts (Dubai Women’sEstablishment, 2012).Emirati female employees reported a lower overall quality of work life and higherturnover intention than their managers and supervisors. The study findings are similar toprevious researchers (Ganesh and Ganesh, 2014; Lu et al., 2016) who reported thatsupervisors have significantly higher work engagement and lower turnover intentionsthan line-level employees. Similar to their international peers (Evans, 2010), there is astrong trend in the female Emirati population to aspire toward leadership positions(DWE, 2012). However, females acquiring leadership or managerial positions are few innumber despite the numerous efforts of the UAE government. It is imperative to mentionthat, due to the numerous efforts taken by UAE policy makers to promote women’sparticipation in the economy, the UAE is ranked as a leader in gender equality in theDownloaded by ABU DHABI UNIVERSITY At 11:53 21 February 2018 (PT)14region (World Economic Forum, 2016). This achievement comes from the fundamentalbelief that women and men are equal partners in society. However, still more needs to bedone to help women reach higher-level positions at the departmental and organizationallevel, and to eliminate the perceived glass ceiling in various sectors. One possible avenuesuggested by Foster, Lional, and Shastri (2011) suggests that mentoring can play asignificant role in enhancing women’s opportunities to advance in organizations.Emirati females who majored in business fields did not report significant differences inQoWL or job satisfaction; however, they reported significantly higher turnover intentionthan non-business educated respondents. Respondents with fewer years of workexperience (between 5 to 10 years) reported lower quality of work life and lower jobsatisfaction than their counterparts with over 10 years of experience. The reason may beattributed to the lack of organized career development programs in the UAE publicsector. Career development involves various alternatives such as developing abilities,preserving current skills and planning for the future versus just receiving promotions (Ko,2012). Typically employees, especially those at the beginning of their careers, selectestablishments which provide opportunities to develop their careers in a progressivemanner and provides pathways for pursuit of specific career goals (Çalık and Eres, 2006;Wang, 2013). Employees tend to become disenchanted if companies do not meet theirexpectations for career advancement.Limitations, Implications and Scope for Future ResearchThe study has various limitations. First, the sample populations for the study were limitedto Emirati female employees who were working in the public organizations based in theAbu Dhabi region, the capital of United Arab Emirates. Thus, future research needs toencompass samples of the various public sectors from other Emirates, to determinewhether the results of this study relate to all Emirati females working in public sectororganizations, and to determine the applicability of these concepts to the private sector. Itis suggested to conduct future research that will focus on the role of university educationin regards to inculcation of a positive perception towards the prospective workplace.Also, future research should replicate this study in the context of other organizations inthe GCC to ensure greater variance in the variables.In addition, this study focused on individual-level characteristics and therefore did notinclude organizational-level variables. Further studies might consider variables that differamong organizations (size, management structure, industry, etc.) to explore interveningeffects of these variables. It is suggested that this study be extended to different workcategories and to different emirates to gain a better understanding of quality of worklife’s impact on localization. Finally, a comparative study of Emirati females and malesworking in both the public and private sector is also suggested.ConclusionThis study examined the quality of work life of Emirati women employed in variouspublic sector organizations in the United Arab Emirates and its influence on jobDownloaded by ABU DHABI UNIVERSITY At 11:53 21 February 2018 (PT)15satisfaction and turnover intention. The authors hypothesized that a) quality of work lifepositively impacts job satisfaction, b) that job satisfaction in turn reduces turnoverintention, and c) that quality of work life has a direct relationship with reduction ofturnover intention. In addition, turnover intention is also directly impacted by QoWL.The results supported these hypotheses with statistically significant results observed.These findings have been verified in prior research (Surienty et al., 2014) as importantfactors in sustained competitive advantage and achieving organizational excellence.It is suggested that public sector employers should formulate policies that will addressfemale employees’ requirements in relation to employee wellbeing including balancingsocio-familial and work priorities, career development and advancement, workplaceengagement and other related factors. Employers are advised to conduct regular surveysto assess quality of work life to identify misalignments between employee expectationsand organizational environments, job requirements and managerial behavior.The current research stresses the importance in understanding how Emirati femaleemployees perceive and categorize themselves as a valuable part of the workplace andthe importance of enhancing their sense of belongingness and engagement with theirorganization. Gaining a better understanding of the factors that influence Emiratiemployees’ decisions to either stay or leave an organization will help to support thelocalization strategy and will help public sector employers to more successfully retainfemale staff.ReferencesAbdulla, J., Djebarni, R. and Mellahi, K. (2011), “Determinants of job satisfaction in theUAE”, Personnel Review, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 126-146.Adhikari, D. R., Hirasawa, K., Takakubo, Y. and Pandey, D.L. 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