1) You cannot step twice into the same river, for other waters and yet other go ever flowing one.(Heraclitus, fr. 21)2) Much learning does not…

1) You cannot step twice into the same river, for other waters and yet other go ever flowing one.(Heraclitus, fr. 21)2) Much learning does not teach understanding, otherwise it would have taught Hesiod and Pythagoras, Xenophanes and Hectaus. (Heraclitus, fr. 6)3) People do not understand how that which is at variance with itself agree with itself. There is a harmony in the bending back, as in the cases of the bow and the lyre. (Heraclitus, fr. 117)4) Although this Logos is eternally valid, men are unable to understand it – not only before hearing it, but even after they have heard it for the first time, that is to say, although all things comes to pass in accordance with this Logos, men seem to be quite without any experience of it – at least if they are judgedin the light of such words and deeds as I am here setting forth according to its nature, and to specify how it behaves. Other men, on the contrary, are as unaware of what they do when awake as they are asleep. (Heraclitus, fr. 1)5) Wisdom one and the same. It is unwilling and willing to be called by the name of Zeus. (Heraclitus, fr. 121)6) The way up and the way down is one and the same. (Heraclitus, fr. 68)7) Men should speak with rational mind and thereby hold strongly to that which is shared in common as a city holds onto its law, and even more strongly. For even more strongly all human laws are nourished by one divine law, which prevails as far as it wishes, suffices for all things, and yet somehow stands above them (Heraclitus, fr. 70)8) The mares which carry me as far as my spirit ever aspired were escorting me, when they brought me and proceeded along the renowned road of the goddess, which brings a knowing mortal to all cities one by one. On this path I was being brought, on it wise mares were bringing me, straining the chariot, and maidens were guiding the way. The axle in the center of the wheel was shrilling forth the bright sound of a musical pipe, ablaze, for it was being driven forward by two rounded wheels at either end, as the daughters of the Sun, were hastening to escort after leaving the house of Night for the light, having pushed back the veils from their heads with their hands. There are the gates of the roads of Night and Day, and a lintel and a stone threshold contain them. High in the sky they are filled by huge doors of which avenging Justice holds the keys that fit them. The maidens beguiled her with soft words and skillfully persuaded her to push back the bar for them quickly from the gates. They made a gaping gap of the doors when they opened them, swinging in turn in their sockets the bronze posts fastened with bolts and rivets. There, straight through them then, the maidens held the chariot and horses on the broad road. And the goddess received me kindly, took my right hand in hers, and addressed me with these words: ‘Young man, accompanied by immortal charioteers, who reach my house by the horses which bring you, welcome – since it was not an evil destiny that sent you forth to travel this road (for indeed it is far from the beaten path of humans), but Right and justice. There is need for you to learn all things – both the unshaken heart of persuasive Truth and the opinions of mortals, in which there is no true reliance. But nevertheless you will learn these too – that the things. (Parmenides, The Journey)9) Come now, I will tell you the only ways of inquiry there are for thinking: the one, that it is and that it is not possible for it not to be, is the path of Persuasion (for it attends upon Truth), the other, that it is not and that it is necessary for it not to be, this I point out to you to be a path completely un-learnable, for neither may you know that which is not (for it is not to be accomplished) nor may you declare it. For the same thing is for thinking and for being. That which is there to be spoken and thought of must be. For it is possible for it to be, but not possible for nothing to be. There is still left a single story of a way, that it is.’ (Parmenides, fr. 5)10) But if it was speech which persuaded Helen and deceived her heart, not even to this is it difficult to make an answer and to banish blame as follows. Speech is a powerful lord, which by means of the finest and most invisible body effects the divinest works: it can stop fear and banish grief and create joy and nurture pity. I shall show how this is the case, since it is necessary to offer proof to the opinion of my hearers: I both deem and define all poetry as speech with meter. Fearful shuddering and tearful pity and grievous longing come upon its hearers, and at the actions and physical sufferings of others in good fortunes and in evil fortunes, through the agency of words, the soul is wont to experience a suffering of its own. But come, I shall turn from one argument to another. Sacred incantations sung with words are bearers of pleasure and banishers of pain, for, merging with opinion in the soul, the power of the incantation is wont to beguile it and persuade it and alter it by witchcraft. There have been discovered two arts of witchcraft and magic: one consists of errors of soul and the other of deceptions of opinion. All who have and do persuade people of things do so by molding a false argument. For if all men on all subjectshad both memory of things past and awareness of things present and foreknowledge of the future, speech would not be similarly similar, since as things are now it is not easy for them to recall the past nor to consider the present nor to predict the future. (Gorgias, The Encomium of Helen)11) There never was nor will be a man who has plain knowledge about the gods and about all the things I speak of. Even if he should chance to say the complete truth, yet he himself knows not that it is so. But all may have their fancy. (Xenophanes, Fr. 10)

*This essay just needs to choose one of these quotes and comment on it. The professor wants this “comment” laid out in four parts.

Introduce the passage and its main ideasThe claims of each sentence (he wants it as a list for example: claim #1, claim #2, etc.)The key terms: all the important words and definitions that are part of the passage, that is essential to philosophy (it can be philosophical terms along with terms used in every day language, just terms that take meaning in a philosophical context)Analysis: Explain each of the claims and analyze what the passage means to you.

Sample Solution
Schizophrenia is an insane issue that is characterized by seriously disabled reasoning, feelings, and practices. Those people determined to have this sickness will in general lose contact with the real world and begin to encounter indications, for example, mind flights and daydreams (Rajesh and Tampi, 2018, p. 82). Psychosis is the principle highlight of this issue and can make an individual encounter an emergency during insane scenes. Schizophrenia is a long lasting and across the board issue that contains no fix, notwithstanding, it is treatable. The principle objective of medications is to enable these individuals to control their sickness and assist them with sponsorship into the real world so they can live ordinary lives. Pathophysiology Schizophrenia is one of the most widely recognized crazy issue analyzed (Pearson, 2015, p.1610). As per Rajesh and Tampi (2018), “around each seven of every 1000 individuals will build up the turmoil in their lifetime (p. 82).” Abnormal mental health has been found in patients determined to have schizophrenia. Pearson (2015) states, during early youth advancement the movement of neurons and anomalous mental health can prompt miscommunication between these neurons and the mind (p.1611). These rebel neurons influence the purported “wiring” of the cerebrum and afterward cause the mind to work inappropriately (Pearson, 2015, 1611). Synapses, for example, dopamine and glutamate are additionally accepted to assume a job in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The sign of psychological brokenness in schizophrenia is said to be connected to useless glutamate work. As per Fatani et al. (2017), “glutamatergic brokenness in schizophrenia is related to brokenness of parvalbumin-positive interneurons inside the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (p. 2642).” These interneurons are what cause the creation of gamma motions, which are significant and produce appropriate subjective working (Fatini et al., 2017, p.2642). Glutamate receptors are likewise liable for the relocation of the neurons during early improvement of the mind, which at that point prompts what was recently expressed about intellectual brokenness. The synapse dopamine is expressed to be connected to the indications of schizophrenia. As indicated by Fatani et al. (2017), there are four dopaminergic pathways included; the nigrostriatal pathway, the mesolimbic pathway, the mesocortical pathway, and the tuberoinfundibular pathway (p.2642). Low dopamine levels in everything except the mesolimbic pathway, cause indications, for example, extrapyramidal side effects, negative side effects, and subjective shortfalls (Fatani et al., 2017, p.2642). In the event that there is an overabundance of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway, positive indications have connected to that (Fatani et al., 2017, p.2642). Research presently can’t seem to demonstrate that these synapses are considered responsible for this issue yet further research is as yet being directed. Hereditary qualities is another factor that can incline somebody to this issue. The individuals who have a relative determined to have schizophrenia are multiple times bound to acquire this issue than the individuals who don’t have a family ancestry of schizophrenia (Pearson, 2015, p.1612). The particular reason for schizophrenia presently can’t seem to be found is as yet not seen altogether yet inquire about is continually being directed to attempt to reveal the reason. Indications, Diagnosis, and Treatment Signs of schizophrenia are characterized as either positive or negative side effects. Positive side effects are viewed as maniacal practices and are effectively seen in the person. These side effects incorporate visualizations, dreams, thought issue, muddled practices, and development issue. Mental trips change dependent on the five detects; sight, sound, taste, contact, or smell, however sound-related mind flights are the most well-known (Pearson, 2015, p.1613). Sound-related fantasy can get hazardous for either the individual with schizophrenia or for everyone around them. Now and again, they can transform into direction mental trips and train the person to make hurt themselves or others. Hallucinations are convictions that hold no spot truly which chiefly lead to neurosis. For instance, schizophrenics may accept that the administration is keeping an eye on them or they are putting considerations into their heads. Thought issue include surprising reasoning and furthermore adjusted discourse designs. Disarranged conduct prompts the failure to carry on with an ordinary life, for example, hold down work or relationship (Pearson, 2015, p.1614). Negative manifestations are said to be increasingly hard to see in the individual in light of the fact that their practices can be viewed as other psychological sickness side effects. These people typically show a level effect, disregard of individual cleanliness, absence of center, anhedonia, and memory hindrance (Pearson, 2015, p.1614). People with schizophrenia are at high hazard for backslide of their crazy side effects. This can be because of poor prescription routine consistence, ecological stressors, or comorbid issue. As indicated by Velligan et al. (2017), backslide of psychosis in schizophrenics is at a pace of 3.5% per month and can be as high as 80% inside a year if treatment isn’t firmly checked (p.232). People experiencing a backslide are at high hazard for suicide. Research has demonstrated that between 2-12% of all suicides are identified with schizophrenia backslide (Popovic et al., 2014, p.419). As per Rajesh and Tampi (2018), the predominance of suicide endeavors in schizophrenics is 20-40% and about 5% end it all (p.85). So as to determine an individual to have schizophrenia, they have to meet criteria on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. Fatani et al. (2017) express that a full appraisal of the patient’s signs and side effects should be assessed first (p.2643). The DSM-5 expresses that an individual needs to have at least two of dynamic side effects either constructive or antagonistic, the individual additionally needs to show diminished working in work, connections, or self-care, and this all must be nonstop for at least a half year (Fatani et al., 2017, p. 2643). Schizophrenia is a treatable issue. The best methodology incorporates a mix of drugs, mental treatment, and social care groups. There are two principle classes of prescriptions that are utilized for schizophrenics, original antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-age antipsychotics (SGAs). SGAs are typically the principal medication of decision while treating this issue. This is on the grounds that FGAs are related with extrapyramidal impacts which can prompt resistance with drug routine (Fatani et al., 2017, p. 2644). Antipsychotics are said to be the best treatment for this issue yet when joined with adjunctive medicines the results are a lot more prominent. People with this issue should be offered intellectual conduct treatment, family mediations, bunch treatment, and social aptitudes preparing. These elective treatments show the individual how to understand the truth of their contemplations, overlook sound-related mental trips, and spur themselves, which consequently diminishes the seriousness of the signs (Pearson, 2015,p. 1619). As medical caretakers, there is a plausibility of an experience with a patient with schizophrenia. Pearson (2015) states, the principle objective of nursing care for these patients is to advance indication control and help during the time spent viable adapting and accomplishing ideal working (p. 1620). Forestalling damage and giving a protected situation is a need of care for these people. Being a customer advocate is additionally a significant part of nursing care. Teaching the customer and their families about this sickness and medications for it won’t just urge the customer to be agreeable however help the family comprehend what the customer is encountering. Effect on family, culture, and network People with schizophrenia and their families for the most part persevere through a lifetime of social, passionate, and budgetary repercussions. At the point when an individual gets analyzed as a youngster the guardians are normally the principle parental figures. They are taught on the confusion, its side effects, and medicines. This issue can put a strain on a family. The schizophrenic will require additional time and consideration while becoming acclimated to the medications recommended and this prompts burnout on the grounds that the parental figure may not like themselves or the other relatives. Here and there worries in families can prompt relational clashes and can likewise bring about families separating. Family treatment is prescribed for individuals who are determined to have this issue. They are taught about adapting aptitudes, outpatient administrations, and their relatives explicit treatment program (Pearson, 2015, p.1619). This kind of treatment is said to help families that are excessively passionate and basic. This issue can likewise affect a person’s way of life and network. The people group they live in may consider them to be “the insane individual” and this may humiliate them and disconnect them. The vast majority in the network are not taught on this issue so they simply make presumptions and judge that individual dependent on their issue. Social practices and convictions can likewise influence how individuals see and decipher signs of schizophrenia. Pearson (2015) gives a model expressing that in certain societies hearing voices or seeing dreams are ordinary and attractive and can be seen as a strict encounter (p. 1616). End Schizophrenia is a ceaseless condition in which recuperation is a deep rooted procedure. A precise reason for this issue has not been plainly distinguished however there are numerous elements that appear to impact its advancement. Hereditary qualities, organic, natural, and social factors all appear to assume a job in the development of this issue. Recognizing the hazard components and indications at an early stage in life can expand better results with treatment plans and consistence. This is a turmoil that should be firmly checked by the person as well as by the families and human services suppliers also. In spite of the fact that there is no remedy for schizophrenia, ther>GET ANSWER Let’s block ads! (Why?)

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