Ethical standards for conducting research

Abstract The present research work is based on the topic “Impact of Athletes Leadership Skills in determining effective performance and sport achievement”. The proposal comprises…

Abstract

The
present research work is based on the topic “Impact
of Athletes Leadership Skills in determining effective performance
and sport achievement”.
The proposal comprises the introduction, research objective,
literature review, research design, nature and form of results and
ethical standards. An athlete leadership is an individual who is able
to occupy a formal or informal role as a leader within the group and
motivate the team members to follow and achieve the common goal. The
key leadership skills in an athlete leader are communication skills,
sports knowledge, self-knowledge, effective interpersonal
relationship, mentoring and supporting skills, decision making, and
preserving team culture. Athlete leaders have a positive impact on
team cohesion, identification, confidence, satisfaction and
motivation level. The research work is conducted by using a primary
research approach, where a survey-based questionnaire will be used to
retrieve first-hand information. Lastly, the ethical considerations
will be thoroughly followed while conducting the research work. The
practical implications of the research work is to create a positive
sports environment and encourage the leadership behaviour of sports
leader and manager at different level. The research study shall
contribute to the sports industry, especially to the sports club at
Abu Dhabi.

Introduction

Leadership
is described as the behavioral process in which an individual is able
to influence others to achieve and desired set of goals (Cotterill
& Fransen, 2016).
In the case of sports, there is a requirement of effective leadership
skills to make decisions, provide feedback, motivate, resolve
conflict, and direct team. An athlete leadership is an individual who
is able to occupy a formal or informal role as a leader within the
group and motivate the team members to follow and achieve the common
goal. The athlete leadership is basically constituting the major
behaviors and attitudes that are required for becoming a team leader.
According to Fransen
et al (2017),
society perceives all the accolades as a type of role model that is
capable of leading and influencing others. This is because it is
believed that sports contribute to the fundamental role in promoting
the members of the society. These members further become a necessary
asset and leader in the future and are therefore considered as vital
to the development of society (Galante,
& Ward, 2017).
When the leadership in context to sports and athletes is discussed,
then it is required to analyze the key leadership skills to be
possessed. In this frame of reference, the athlete leader must
possess key leadership skills such as; communication skills, sports
knowledge, self-knowledge, effective interpersonal relationship,
mentoring and supporting skills, decision making, and preserving team
culture (Loughead,
Fransen, Van Puyenbroeck, Hoffmann, and De Cuyper, 2016).
In addition to leadership skills, it is also required to analyze the
key behavioral qualities to be possessed by the athlete leader. The
key behavioral qualities include hard work and dedication, respect to
others, team-centered, self-esteem and confidence, knowledge of
self-strength, and behave in a credible and reliable way (Gomes,
2014).  

Despite
increasing evidence that supports the present understanding of
athlete leadership, there still exist several gaps in the research.
The past research work has not focused on the idea of shared athlete
leadership considering the concept of informal leadership. The
present research is only focused on the responsibility and leadership
of the team captain. In addition to this, the consideration has been
given by the researchers on specific rules of athlete leaders such as
behaviors, skills, expertise, and knowledge. In addition to this, the
basic challenges faced by the athlete leader and the requirement for
developmental needs are not explored in detail. Lastly, it is also
identified that most of the research work has emphasized the role of
leaders before and after sports (Ferrar,
Hosea, Henson, Dubina and Krueger 2018).
Therefore, more detailed research is required to identify the
importance of athlete leadership for a sport team.

Research
objective

The
primary objective of this research study is to understand the
significance of athletes’ leadership skills in determining the
effect of performance and sports achievement. In particular, the
research work has the objective to analyze the key leadership skill
in athletes and their influence on the sports team’s performance. 

The
study is based on three key research questions, which will be
discussed in this report in upcoming sections. 

What
are the key leadership skills required for athletes for the
effective performance of the sports team?

To
what extent does the athlete leader or coach can influence team
performance?

Does
sports organization facilitate training and educational programs to
the athlete leader for effective team management and performance?

All
these research question will be evaluated and measured from the
statistical evidence collected from the questionnaires asked to the
participants (athletes) (questionnaires are given at the end of the
report).

Research
Hypothesis

In
this research study, the following hypothesis will be tested;

Hypothesis
1: The sport leader help in enhancing the morale and efficiency of
athletes.

Hypothesis
2: Effective sport leader improves team performance.

Hypothesis
3: Presence of efficient sport leader reduces conflict within the
team.

The
collected data will be analysed to find reliability of the above
mentioned hypothesis and derive relationship between sport leader,
athlete’s efficiency and morale, team performance, and team
conflict. The statistical method that will be used to in this regard
re as follows:

Descriptive
statistics: graphical tools such as bar graph, pie chart.

Correlation
analysis: for determining relationship between various variables.

Literature
review

This
section illustrates some of the past research work on the given topic
irrespective of demographic criteria. It is because there exists
limited research studies athlete leadership in the Arab context. The
selection of literature in this section is conducted on the basis of
publication date reaches mainly within the past 10 years of
publication in reputed journals. 

Leadership
is considered as a fundamental requirement for sports performance,
specifically for the team sport environment (Raziq,
Borini, Malik, Ahmad, & Shabaz, 2018).
Considering the sports leadership, most of the researchers are more
focused on identifying the role as well as the influence of the
leader on the team. It is identified by Loughead
et al (2016) that athlete leaders have positive impact team cohesion,
identification, confidence, satisfaction and motivation level. 

Categorization
of role-specific athlete leadership

There
are multiple ways through which the athlete leadership can be
categorized. According to Cotterill
et al (2016), there are basically two types of athlete leaders; the
first one instrumental function and emphasizes forming group tasks,
while the second one is based on expressive function and focuses on
interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, Loughead
et al (2016) classifies the role differentiation theory and
accordingly describe three different leadership roles. In this frame
of reference, the author describes different leadership roles such as
task leader, motivational leader, social leader and external leader
(Slater,
Coffee, Barker, & Evans, 2014).
The
task leader of the sports team is the one who is in charge of the
field. This leader assists the team to remain focused on the goal and
helps in decision-making (Fransen,
Haslam, Steffens, Mallett, and Peters 2019).
Similarly, the motivational leader encourages the players and puts
them in the right direction so that they can perform optimally as a
team. The social leader is the one who holds a leading role in the
field, thereby promoting good relations and a good team atmosphere
(Pierce,
Blanton, & Gould, 2018).
This leader deals with the conflict within the team members. Finally,
the external leader acts as a connection between the sports team and
external people (O’Brien,
2018).
Basically the external leader is a representative of the team and
helps in communication with the sponsors, and media (Duguay,
Loughead, & Munroe-Chandler, 2016). 

Impact
of athletic leadership in sports team’s performance

In
a recent research report by Megheirkouni
(2017),
these are identified that athlete leadership holds a positive impact
on team dynamics and satisfaction. It is also identified to have a
positive influence on team cohesion and performance (Cotterill,
& Fransen, 2016).
It is therefore concluded that under effective athlete leadership
positively influences the confidence level of team players which in
turn is reflected in team resilience and team functioning (Loughead,
& Bloom, 2016).
In addition to this, the athlete leaders also depict a high standard
of work ethic which inturn assist the team members to deal with
adversity, improve team chemistry, and minimize conflict (Loughead,
2017). 

Research design:

The
research design which will be used in this study is explanatory in
nature. The research methodology is basically a primary research
approach, where a survey-based questionnaire will be used to retrieve
first-hand information.
The questionnaire will be provided to each participant through online
medium (e-mail). The population to be used for this research study
comprises athletes
from different sports clubs within Abu Dhabi that ADSC regulate.
The target respondents for the present research study will be 100
atheletes working at Abu Dhabi
Sports Council. The respondents for this questionnaire survey will be
selected on a random basis. this
survey will be sent to some of the 47 different sports clubs such
as football, jujitsu….and many more. The
rationale behind using this methodology is that the athletes working
in the sports Council are well aware of their leadership skills and
significance on team performance. They will help in providing
appropriate and accurate responses to the acquired research questions
(Loughead,
Hirsch, Boisvert, & Maechel, 2020). 

Nature and form of the results:

In
this section, it will be analyzed whether all the research questions
and research objectives are discovered by using the selected research
methodology. It will be analyzed then each goal of the research study
has been completed thoroughly. More specifically, this section
illustrates the type of results that will be retrieved and the
requisite interpretation to be made in the analysis section. The
results are expected to be sound statistical evidence which will be
often through is a logical and fair manner (Loughead,
2017). 

Ethical standards for conducting research, facilities and special resources:

During
conducting the primary research work, special attention will be given
to abide by ethical standards. The contributors to this research
study will be acknowledged and given equal weightage. The privacy and
confidentiality of the respondents’ names and professions involved in
the research study will be maintained. The literature sources which
are used in the literature review section will be explicitly
highlighted in the ‘reference’ section. The information collected in
this work will be used only for academic purposes and not for
commercial purposes. Additionally, plagiarism and copy paste work
will be avoided in the research study. For conducting the
questionnaire-based survey, there will be a requirement for
internet-connected computers, telephones, office materials (pen,
papers), and premises for conducting survey (Kao,
& Tsai, 2016). 

References:

Cotterill,
S. T., & Fransen, K. (2016). Athlete leadership in sport teams:
Current understanding and future directions. International
Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology,
9(1),
116-133.

Cotterill,
S. T., & Fransen, K. (2016). Athlete leadership in sport teams:
Current understanding and future directions. International
Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 9(1),
116-133.

Duguay,
A. M., Loughead, T. M., & Munroe-Chandler, K. J. (2016). The
development, implementation, and evaluation of an athlete leadership
development program with female varsity athletes. The
Sport Psychologist,
30(2),
154-166.

Duguay,
A. M., Loughead, T. M., & Munroe-Chandler, K. J. (2016). The
development, implementation, and evaluation of an athlete leadership
development program with female varsity athletes. The
Sport Psychologist, 30(2),
154-166.

Ferrar,
P., Hosea, L., Henson, M., Dubina, N., Krueger, G., Staff, J., &
Gilbert, W. (2018). Building high performing coach-athlete
relationships: the usoc’s national team coach leadership education
program (NTCLEP). International
Sport Coaching Journal, 5(1),
60-70.

Fransen,
K., Haslam, S. A., Mallett, C. J., Steffens, N. K., Peters, K., &
Boen, F. (2017). Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to
team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports
teams. Journal
of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(8),
800-806.

Fransen,
K., Haslam, S. A., Steffens, N. K., Mallett, C. J., Peters, K., &
Boen, F. (2019). Making ‘us’ better: High-quality athlete
leadership relates to health and burnout in professional Australian
football teams. European
journal of sport science,
1-11.

Galante,
M., & Ward, R. M. (2017). Female student leaders: An examination
of transformational leadership, athletics, and
self-esteem. Personality
and Individual Differences, 106,
157-162.

Gomes,
A. R. (2014). Transformational leadership: Theory, research and
application to sports.

Kao,
S. F., & Tsai, C. Y. (2016). Transformational leadership and
athlete satisfaction: The mediating role of coaching
competency. Journal
of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(4),
469-482.

Loughead,
T. M. (2017). Athlete leadership: A review of the theoretical,
measurement, and empirical literature. Current
opinion in psychology,
16,
58-61.

Loughead,
T. M., & Bloom, G. A. (2016). Coach and athlete leadership in
sport. In Routledge
International Handbook of Sport Psychology (pp.
515-523). Routledge.

Loughead,
T. M., Fransen, K., Van Puyenbroeck, S., Hoffmann, M. D., De Cuyper,
B., Vanbeselaere, N., & Boen, F. (2016). An examination of the
relationship between athlete leadership and cohesion using social
network analysis. Journal
of Sports Sciences,
34(21),
2063-2073.

Loughead,
T. M., Hirsch, K. E., Boisvert, M. M., & Maechel, C. (2020).
Athlete leadership in youth sport. In The
Power of Groups in Youth Sport (pp.
73-89). Academic Press.

O’Brien,
J. (2018). Leadership Development Programs in College Athletics: An
Exploration of the Student-Athlete Experience.

Pierce,
S., Blanton, J., & Gould, D. (2018). An online program for high
school student-athlete leadership development: Community engagement,
collaboration, and course creation. Case
Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2(1),
23-29.

Slater,
M. J., Coffee, P., Barker, J. B., & Evans, A. L. (2014).
Promoting shared meanings in group memberships: A social identity
approach to leadership in sport. Reflective
Practice, 15(5),
672-685.

Megheirkouni,
M. (2017). Leadership competencies: qualitative insight into
non-profit sport organisations. International
Journal of Public Leadership.

Raziq,
M. M., Borini, F. M., Malik, O. F., Ahmad, M., & Shabaz, M.
(2018). Leadership styles, goal clarity, and project
success. Leadership
& Organization Development Journal.

Questionnaires for athletes:-

What
is your age?

10-15
years

15-20
years

20-25
years

above
25 years

What
is your gender?

Male

Female

How
many members are there in your sports team?

0-5

5-10

10-15

15-20

What
is the decision making style of your team athlete leader?

Autocratic

Consultative

Participative

Delegative

Does
the leader motivates team member?

Yes

No

What
is the interpersonal behavioural style of your team leader?

Autonomy
supportive interpersonal style

Controlling
interpersonal style

How
many matches your team has won till date?

1

2

3

4
or more

Does
your team leader considers you opinion during decision-making?

Yes

No

Are
you satisfied under the guidance of your current team leader?

Yes

No

Does
your leader understand your requirement regarding additional
training or workshop?

Yes

No

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