Activity 1Considering the following operations, give examples of different types of inventory.
You will see that it is often more difficult to apply the terms to service-based organisations.
Raw Material Inventory (RMI)Work in Progress Inventory (WIP)Finished Goods Inventory (FGI)Car plantElectrical components, paint sub- assemblies, systems, etc. Part-assembled cars, batches of spares, etc.
Fully assembled cars.Spares and accessories for retail.RestaurantFresh vegetables, meat, ingredients, beverages, etc Meals being made, food in ovens, frozen stocks and sauces, etc. Prepared items ondessert trolley, take away orders, etc.
Using product information obtained from web searches, compare three inventory management systems (or software packages) which could be purchased by the General Manager of a large state-run hospital. What are the claimed benefits of each system? What disadvantages might be experienced in using these approaches to inventory management and what resistance might be presented by staff?
ABC analysis. Follow the worked example in Slack (2004), pp. 432–433 and make sure you understand the concept. Construct a Pareto curve for the following stock list, taken from the gift section of a University shop, using value as the aim of your categorisation.
Note: This can of course be done manually, using graph paper – but software such as Excel will make it very quick and simple.
Stock Item StockCode UsagePer YearUnit Cost (£)Calendar 1 128 7.5Scarf 2 25 14.5Baseball Cap 3 322 7.5Mug (logo) 4 75 8.75Pen Set 5 38 6.5University Print (unframed) 6 44 25University Print (framed) 7 38 45Sweatshirt (XL,L,M and S 8 235 28.5Academic Diary 9 220 4.5File 10 575 4T-Shirt (XL,L,M and S) 11 473 10Polo Shirt 12 37 16.75Paperweight 13 12 15Notebook 14 275 2.5Disposable Lighter (logo) 15 110 0.6Brass Lighter (logo) 16 5 7.5Ash Tray (glass) 17 12 7.5
Create your own classification boundaries and, for each category, create a specific inventory review policy.
Activity 4DA (Discussion Activity) 2 hours
CASE STUDY(Read the short case in Slack 6th Ed, on pages 294-295, ‘Air traffic control- a world class juggling act’ – Slack et al. “Operations Management”, 4th edition, Prentice Hall, 2004)Air traffic control: a world-class juggling actAir traffic controllers have one of the most stressful jobs in the world. They are responsible for the lives of thousands of passengers who fly every day in and out of the world’s airports. Over the last 15 years, the number of planes in the sky has doubled, leading to congestion at many airports and putting air traffic controllers under increasing pressure. The controllers battle to maintain “separation standards” that set the distance between planes as they land and take off. Sheer volume pushes the air traffic controllers’ skills to the limit. Jim Courtney, an air traffic controller at LaGuardia Airport in New York, says: “There are half a dozen moments of sheer terror in each year when you wish you did something else for a living”.New York – the world’s busiest airspaceThe busiest airspace in the world is above New York. Around 7500 planes arrive and depart each day at New York’s three airports, John F. Kennedy, LaGuardia and Newark. The three airports form a triangle around New York and are just 15 miles from each other. This requires careful coordination of traffic patterns, approach and take-off routes, using predetermined corridors in the sky to keep the planes away from each other. If the wind changes, all three airports work together to change the flight paths. Sophisticated technology fitted to most of the bigger planes creates a safety zone around the aircraft so that when two aircraft get near to each other their computers negotiate which is going to take action to avoid the other and then alert the pilot who changes course. Smaller aircraft, without radar, rely upon vision and the notion of “little plane, big sky”.During its passage into or out of an airport, each plane will pass through the hands of about eight different controllers. The airspace is divided into sectors controlled by different teams of air traffic controllers. Tower controllers at each airport control planes landing and taking off together with ground controllers who manage the movement of the planes on the ground around the airport. The TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) controllers oversee the surrounding airspace. Each New York air traffic controller handles about 100 landings and take offs per hour, about one every 45 seconds.TRACON controllersThe 60 TRACON controllers manage different sectors of airspace, with planes being handed over from one controller to the next. Each controller handles about 15 planes at a time, yet they never see them. All they see is a blip on a two-dimensional radar screen, which shows their aircraft type, altitude, speed and destination. The aircraft, however, are in three-dimensional airspace, flying at different altitudes and in various directions. The job of the approach controllers is to funnel planes from different directions into an orderly queue before handing each one over to the tower controllers for landing.Tower controllersThe tower controllers are responsible for coordinating landing and taking off. Newark is New York’s busiest airport. During the early morning rush periods, there can be 40 planes an hour coming into land, with about 60 wanting to take off. As a result there can be queues of up to 25 planes waiting to depart.At LaGuardia, there are two runways that cross each other, one used for take off and the other for landing. At peak times, air traffic controllers have to “shoot the gap” – to get planes to take off in between the stream of landing aircraft, sometimes less than 60 seconds apart. Allowing planes to start their take off as other planes are landing, using “anticipated separation”, keeps traffic moving and helps deal with increasing volumes of traffic. At peak times, controllers have to shoot the gap 80 times an hour.Most airports handle a mixture of large and small planes, and tower controllers need to be able to calculate safe take off intervals in an instant. They have to take into account aircraft type and capabilities in order to ensure that appropriate separations can be kept. The faster planes need to be given more space in front of them than the slower planes. Wake turbulence – mini-hurricanes which trail downstream of a plane’s wing tips – is another major factor in determining how closely planes can follow each other. The larger the plane and the slower the plane, the greater the turbulence.Besides the usual “large” planes, controllers have to manage the small aircraft, business helicopters, traffic spotter planes and the many sightseeing planes flying over Manhattan, or up the Hudson towards the Statue of Liberty. The tower controllers have to control the movement of over 2000 helicopters and light aircraft that fly through New York’s airspace every day, being sure to keep them out of the airspace around each airport used by the arriving and departing aircraft.Ground controllersAs an aircraft lands, if it is handed over to the ground controllers who are responsible for navigating it through the maze of interconnecting taxiways found at most international airports. Some airport layouts mean that planes, having landed, have to cross over the runway where other planes are taking off in order to get to the terminal. All this need careful coordination by the ground controllers.Some pilots may be unfamiliar with airport layouts and need careful coaxing. Worse still is poor visibility, fog or low cloud. At Kennedy airport, the ground radar does not show aircraft type, so the controllers have to rely upon memory and constant checking of aircraft position by radio to ensure they know where each aircraft is at any time.StressDealing continually with so many aircraft movements means that controllers have only a split second to analyse and react to every situation, yet they need to be right 100 per cent of the time. Any small error or lapse in concentration can have catastrophic consequences. They can’t afford to lose track of a single aircraft, because it may stray into someone else’s air space and into the path of another aircraft. If the computer projects that two planes are about to fly closer than three miles, the Conflict Alert buzzer sounds and the controllers have just seconds to make the right decision and then transmit it to the pilots. Sometimes problems arise in the planes themselves, such as an aircraft running short of fuel. Emergency landing procedures cover such eventualities. At Kennedy airport, they have about one such incident each day. As one controller remarked: “it’s like an enhanced video game, except you only have one life”.
QuestionsQ1. Discuss and critically evaluate the planning activities involved in the case of air traffic control.Q2. Discuss the specific control activities undertaken by the air traffic controllers and assess the impact of losing control on a particular aircraft to the other planes.Q3. How would you critically evaluate the different problems that TRACON, tower and ground controllers face?
Military drafts are extraordinary with regards to having individuals in the military for when our nation should be ensured, or in the event that one of our partners need assistance. In any case, do we truly require the draft? Simply consider it. Our nation hasn’t expected to utilize the draft since the Vietnam war, and the draft found some conclusion in 1973 as the Vietnam war finished. It has been almost 50 years, and the individuals that are presently in the military have done their part for our nation. In the military at the present time, there are over 1.3 million individuals serving, with additional for possible later use. Is there motivation to have more soldiers? Additionally, when you consider it, the individuals would most likely not bolster it. Presently, how about we dive into this with more subtleties, and we’ll check whether your thinking is as yet the equivalent. Since the Vietnam war occurred, we have not held a necessary draft. The draft was closed down in 1973, and we have not held it for generally around 46 years. That is almost 50 years! Numerous individuals accept there is a war to happen soon, yet when the military anticipated a war, they were wrong, which is a pattern that has been going on for quite a while. There is certainly a motivation behind why the draft hasn’t been fired up once more. Please, simply consider it! Likewise, having a draft alongside a military is additionally not as cost proficient. Albeit numerous reasons have been clarified, the time has come to clarify some more. The measure of individuals serving in the military right currently runs at more than 1 million, with numerous likewise kept for possible later use. In the event that a war comes up sooner rather than later, we would most likely not require a draft except if something startling occurs, which we despite everything have a that is prepared all around ok to experience many things. Despite the fact that a draft can be helpful, the United States armed force doesn’t generally require a draft as of now. It is likely that the expense and a few different reasons would make congress put it down, regardless of whether numerous individuals approve of having a draft once more. Despite the fact that many individuals are contemplating having the draft once more, additionally consider the side that would not go for having the draft. This incorporates individuals that have been in a war. Hearing stories and encounters that they have seen can truly terrify individuals, also the most dire outcome imaginable where you lose your life. Consider what others’ lives would resemble on the off chance that you were not there. The narratives that can emerge out of this are unquestionably not worth the way that you can lose your life. Returning to the first point, what is the plausibility of congress giving the draft in a period where there are have a lot of fighters that can be taken to war. In spite of the fact that there might be a period later on where we will require the draft, the draft is most likely not required starting at the present moment. A portion of our kin in America are battling for the draft, yet for what reason is that required at the present time. The draft has not been held since 1973, and that is on the grounds that we have not required it from that point forward. Additionally, the measure of individuals that we have situated in the military, also the individuals available for later, is situated at more than one million, causing it so we to have a lot of military that can be utilized to battle. Presently, returning to the beginning of this section, there are a lot of individuals battling for the draft, however shouldn’t something be said about the side that isn’t making it work? Congress will likely not put it all on the line, and there is a side that isn’t conflicting with it. Anyway, what is your assessment regarding this matter?>GET ANSWER Let’s block ads! (Why?)