Describe the circumstances surrounding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. What were Japanese motivations for the attack? Why was the U.S. not prepared?
And so, the ‘New Labour’ project can be broadly interpreted as encompassing first and foremost “a policy agenda, a political project [that is] on concerned with propelling Labour into office,” with the aim of embracing “policy perhaps being ‘whatever works’ under the contemporary economic and social conditions,”. (Chadwick and Heffernan, 2003). Having outlined how the party arrived at this, it is clear to see why a more intense and targeted media management was needed by the Labour party, after so long fighting in opposition, and against a seemingly right-wing press. During this structural upheaval, a largely fabricated presentation of a party in conflict was concocted by the mass media as news outlets fell more and more vulnerable to the stratagem of sensationalism, much to the party’s electoral detriment, and that of political discourse in general. Divisions within the party were amplified by many journalists, especially those working for pro- Conservative newspapers, or “the Murdoch press”, as means of creating Labour as a party unable to govern. (Chadwick and Heffernan, 2003). And thus a strong image of leadership and party unity was needed to counteract this, and became core to the New Labour project. Wring concisely assesses how the Labour Party are at an intrinsic disadvantage when liaising with the press, due to the fact that Conservatism “welcomes a democratic franchise because experience shows and research suggests that it can manipulate that franchise, maintaining it’s control of the press.” (Wring, 2005). Here, the assessment can be made that the politicised nature of the press during the 18 years of conservatism prior to Blair, and even before that including and succeeding the Churchill post-war government, creates a media environment within which the Labour Party customarily are on the back foot. Leading up to the 1997 general election, New Labour was surprisingly successful in realising this objective, gaining the favour of several popular, right-wing tabloids. It is quite evident, according to Tunney, that “studies of the 1980s and early 1990s, a period in which the press was particularly blamed for Labour’s defeats, have pointed to the influence of news values that the Conservative press had on broadcasters,”. (Tunney, 2007). It is fair to say that this could not have been achieved without the policy of ‘spin’. The word ‘spin’ has for the last decade “been used to describe the efforts of politicians to get across their message,”. (Grayson, 2010). In specific, key roles were created to micro-manage the journalistic reporting on the Labour party, in an attempt to limit the negative press, and put forward New Labour’s agenda in the best light. “Proactive media management” has been accorded by many as the central mechanism in the operation of the New Labour project. This can be simplified as a more ‘electoral professional’ approach. (Chadwick and Heffernan, 2003). Enshrined in the ambition of ‘spin’, areas of government were tasked with generating news stories and events for certain media coverage, while unscrupulously controlling the release of this information in order to maintain a “steady flow of primary material detailing positive governmental activities and policy initiatives”. (Heffernan and Stanyer, 1998). This creates a codependent relationship between politicians and their favoured press outlets, as journalists benefit from the often exclusive releases of parliamentary events and political information. The government can thus hope to feed the media’s need for information in return for good publicity. (Heffernan and Stanyer, 1998). In so many words, newspapers now had huge commercial reason to alter attitudes surrounding New Labour in order to stay in tune with the opinions of readers.>GET ANSWER Let’s block ads! (Why?)