L1 Transfer or L2 Development Theory

L1 Transfer or L2 Development Theory/Theorist Table L1 Transfer or L2 Development Theory/Theorist Table So you’ve decided whether the “error” you’ve selected to analyze is based…

L1 Transfer or L2 Development Theory/Theorist Table

L1 Transfer or L2 Development Theory/Theorist Table So you’ve decided whether the “error” you’ve selected to analyze is based on L1 transfer or L2 development.
Use the list of theories below to help you figure out which
theorist/theory makes more sense in helping you to explain why the ELL
student made the error. 

If you’ve determined your “error” to be an L1 transfer, read more about the following topics:

TheoryDescriptionReferences in Theory/Theorist Zipped Folder in Canvas to UseSelinker’s Interlanguage theoryIn second language acquisition, it is expected that
second language learners will produce an interim language between their
first and second language which is referred to interlanguage. This
interlanguage system causes second language learners to produce errors
that may be attributed to interference from the mother tongue OR difficulties of learning complex English structures.– All articles in the “Interlanguage” folder– Adamson et al (1997) – Sources of Variation in Interlanguage– Cheatham (2010) – Young ELLs’ Interlanguage– Selinker (1988) – Papers in Interlanguage– Selinker et al (1975) – Interlanguage Hypothesis Extended to ChildrenL1 transfer theories & OvergeneralizationLearners apply the grammatical knowledge about how
linguistic forms work from their first language and try to apply them to
the second language.– “First Language Influence” folder: Pg. 54-56 in Bialystok (1991), Chapter 3; Pg. 52-54 by Gass in Luria (2006), Chapter 3–  Pg 93- 98, in Coelho (2004), Chapter 12. (available online)– Isurin (2005) – Cross Linguistic Transfer in Word Order– Benson (2002) – Transfer & Crosslinguistic Influence– Solis (1986) – Language Transfer in Acquisition of Negation–
Pg.  158 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 8; Pg. 143 in Coelho (2004), Chapter
8; Pg. 158 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 8; Pg. 99 in Coelho (2004),
Chapter 12. (available online)– Pg. 144 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 8. (available online)– Pg. 73 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 4. (available online)Natural TranslationWhen translating, language learners reformulate a
message from their first language into another language, usually
carrying over grammatical features from the L1 that do not reflect the
most native-like grammatical patterns in the L2.– All articles in the “Natural Translation” folderCodeswitchingWhen language learners alternate languages within an
utterance to capture new ways of meaning or to communicate more
effectively, such as to cover gaps in the speaker’s vocabulary knowledge
in the L2.– All articles in the “Codeswitching” folder– Pg. 98, in Coelho (2004), Chapter 12. (available online)Cummins’ Common Underlying proficiencyKnowledge and literacy skills (as well as grammatical
knowledge) in a student’s native language will transfer to his or her
learning of a target language.– First Language Influence” folder: Pg. 37-38 in Baker (2000), Section B

If you’ve determined your “error” to be based on normal L2 development, read more about the following topics:

TheoryDescriptionReferences in Theory/Theorist Zipped Folder in Canvas to UseMcLaughlin’s Attention-Processing ModelLanguage learners make L2 errors because they may not be
able to juggle all the necessary L2 linguistic information since they
are still trying to learn the grammatical features and application of
rules.– Pgs 28-30 in Horwitz (2008)– Pgs 282-286 in Brown (2000)Bialystok’s Analysis/Automaticity ModelSecond language learners make errors during the language
learning and production process because they have to move back and
forth between using their knowledge about the L2 and articulating that
knowledge (i.e., automatic and controlled processing).– Schmidt (1992) – Controlled and Automatic Processing– Brown (1994) – Theories of SLA Swain’s Output HypothesisLanguage learners are only able to learn to apply L2
grammatical rules correctly if they’re given opportunities to produce
the target language in writing or speech. During these language
production opportunities, it is natural for language learners to make
errors. More opportunities for production and feedback about the errors
will help them learn how to apply L2 grammatical rules correctly.– Swain (1993) – The Output Hypothesis– Swain (2000) – The output hypothesis and beyond – Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue– Pg. 99 – 102 in Lantolf (2000) – Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning (available on google books) U-Shaped Learning or BackslidingAfter language learners acquire new L2 grammatical
forms, they sometimes resort back to incorrectly formed features that
they had previously acquired because they are still in the process of
restructuring their existing grammatical understanding to reflect the
new learning.– All articles in the “U-Shaped Learning” folder– John Case – Theory of U-Shaped Learning– pgs 57-59 in Grassi & Barker (2010) Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Students (available on google books)– pg. 303-304 in Ellis (1994) – The Study of Second Language Acquisition (available on google books)
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