Reflecting on chapters 17-20 of the book Treating Traumatic Stress Disorders by Courtois and Ford 2009.Each chapter should be addressed and referenced in the paper. Apply to counseling and treatment oftrauma as well as the Christian worldview.
deprivations and petty humiliations”, such as micro-penalties constructed within the workshop, the school, and the army (194). In particular, Foucault gave five types of micro-penalties:1) the micro-penalty of “time (latenesses, absences, in¬terruptions of tasks); 2) activity (inattention, negligence, lack of zeal), 3) behavior (impoliteness, disobedience); 3) speech (idle chatter, insolence); 4) the body (“incorrect” attitudes, irregular gestures, lack of cleanliness); 5) sexuality (impurity, indecency)” (194). The subtle punishments are somewhat conflicting because they deviate from punishments as to correct behaviors while assigning punitive functions to indifferent apparatuses. In this sense, everything can carry out the function of petty punishment; as Foucault wrote, “each subject find himself caught in a punishable, punish¬ing universality” (194). He concedes that it is “always the body that is at issue— the body and its forces, their utility and their docility, their distribution and their submission” (172). But it is the soul of the body that becomes the objective of the systems of punishment (172). There are limits to how one’s body can be punished, but there is no such limit to the soul. While the body was publicly tortured, the soul has a private nature. Different from the feudal periods, the body is no longer the major target of punishment in the modern era. Neither the offense nor the offender is being judged; it is the delinquent that the penitentiary apparatus substitutes for the convicted person—a different object that is not considered in the sentence as it is only relevant for its corrective function (219). The delinquent is different from the offender because what actually characterizes him is not his act but his life. In order to reeducate the individual, the penitentiary operation should be based on “the sum total existence of the delinquent, making of the prison a sort of artificial and coer¬cive theater in which his life will be examined from top to bottom” (219). A series of conce>GET ANSWER Let’s block ads! (Why?)